Comparison of the impact of cancer between British and US long-term non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.
The aims of this study were to examine quality of life, using the Impact of Cancer version 2 (IOCv2), in British non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors and investigate differences between survivors in the UK and the USA.
NHL survivors (326 UK and 667 US) completed the 37-item IOCv2 and psychological distress, fatigue and social support questionnaires.
The IOCv2 showed good reliability in the British sample with higher internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.7-0.9) and no floor and ceiling effects. UK survivors showed significantly higher negative (p < 0.001) and higher positive (p = 0.003) IOC compared to US survivors. Younger survivors (p = 0.003), those with shorter time since diagnosis (p < 0.001) and with lower levels of social support (p = 0.001), showed more negative IOC in both groups. Higher negative IOC was also significantly associated with fatigue (p < 0.001) and depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) in both countries. Higher positive IOC was associated with female gender (p < 0.001), longer time since diagnosis (p = 0.02), those diagnosed at later stage (p < 0.05) and with greater social support (p = 0.004). Whereas significantly lower positive IOC was associated with white ethnicity (p < 0.001), higher education levels (p < 0.05) and fatigue (p = 0.001).
The IOCv2 is reliable and applicable in UK and US populations. Both negative and positive IOC scores were higher in British compared to US survivors. However, in both countries, psychosocial factors consistently showed the greatest impact on QOL irrespective of clinical characteristics. Recognition and treatment of individuals with these risk factors is a high priority for improving QOL in long-term cancer survivors, as is the development of modular interventions aimed at increasing positive IOC as well as decreasing negative impact. The IOCv2 shows great potential both as a screening and assessment measure for examining cancer-related outcomes among survivors.
Sarker, S-J; Smith, SK; Chowdhury, K; Ganz, PA; Zimmerman, S; Gribben, J; Korszun, A
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