Proposed primary endpoints for use in clinical trials that compare treatment options for bloodstream infection in adults: a consensus definition.
OBJECTIVES: To define standardized endpoints to aid the design of trials that compare antibiotic therapies for bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: Prospective studies, randomized trials or registered protocols comparing antibiotic therapies for BSI, published from 2005 to 2016, were reviewed. Consensus endpoints for BSI studies were defined using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Different primary and secondary endpoints were defined for pilot (small-scale studies designed to evaluate protocol design, feasibility and implementation) and definitive trials (larger-scale studies designed to test hypotheses and influence clinical practice), as well as for Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative BSI. For pilot studies of S. aureus BSI, a primary outcome of success at day 7 was defined by: survival, resolution of fever, stable/improved Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and clearance of blood cultures, with no microbiologically confirmed failure up to 90 days. For definitive S. aureus BSI studies, a primary outcome of success at 90 days was defined by survival and no microbiologically confirmed failure. For pilot studies of Gram-negative BSI, a primary outcome of success at day 7 was defined by: survival, resolution of fever and symptoms related to BSI source, stable or improved SOFA score and negative blood cultures. For definitive Gram-negative BSI studies, a primary outcome of survival at 90 days supported by a secondary outcome of success at day 7 (as previously defined) was agreed. CONCLUSIONS: These endpoints provide a framework to aid future trial design. Further work will be required to validate these endpoints with respect to patient-centred clinical outcomes.
Harris, PNA; McNamara, JF; Lye, DC; Davis, JS; Bernard, L; Cheng, AC; Doi, Y; Fowler, VG; Kaye, KS; Leibovici, L; Lipman, J; Llewelyn, MJ; Munoz-Price, S; Paul, M; Peleg, AY; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Rogers, BA; Seifert, H; Thamlikitkul, V; Thwaites, G; Tong, SYC; Turnidge, J; Utili, R; Webb, SAR; Paterson, DL
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