Factors associated with function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Background: Many individuals do not resume unrestricted, preinjury sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, thus a better understanding of factors associated with function is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of knee impairment and psychological variables with function in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hypothesis: After controlling for demographic variables, knee impairment and psychological variables contribute to function in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4a. Methods: Fifty-eight subjects with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction completed a standardized testing battery for knee impairments (range of motion, effusion, quadriceps strength, anterior knee joint laxity, and pain intensity), kinesiophobia (shortened Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and function (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective form and single-legged hop test). Separate 2-step regression analyses were conducted with International Knee Documentation Committee subjective form score and single-legged hop index as dependent variables. Demographic variables were entered into the model first, followed by knee impairment measures and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score. Results: A combination of pain intensity, quadriceps index, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score, and flexion motion deficit contributed to the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective form score (adjusted r 2 = 0.67; P <.001). Only effusion contributed to the single-legged hop index (adjusted r 2 = 0.346; P =.002). Conclusion: Knee impairment and psychological variables in this study were associated with self-report of function, not a performance test. Clinical Relevance: The results support focusing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction rehabilitation on pain, knee motion deficits, and quadriceps strength, as well as indicate that kinesiophobia should be addressed. Further research is needed to reveal which clinical tests are associated with performance testing. © 2009 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.
Lentz, TA; Tillman, SM; Indelicato, PA; Moser, MW; George, SZ; Chmielewski, TL
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