Risk of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome among older women receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer on Modern Cooperative Group Trials (Alliance A151511).
PURPOSE: We examined acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) events among 9679 women treated for breast cancer on four adjuvant Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology trials with >90 months of follow-up in order to better characterize the risk for AML/MDS in older patients receiving anthracyclines. METHODS: We used multivariable Cox regression to examine factors associated with AML/MDS, adjusting for age (≥65 vs. <65 years; separately for ≥70 vs. <70 years), race/ethnicity, insurance, performance status, and anthracycline receipt. We also examined the effect of cyclophosphamide, the interaction of anthracycline and age, and outcomes for those developing AML/MDS. RESULTS: On Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40101, 49907, 9344, and 9741, 7290 received anthracyclines; 15% were in the age ≥65 and 7% were ≥70. Overall, 47 patients developed AML/MDS (30 AML [0.3%], 17 MDS [0.2%]); 83% of events occurred within 5 years of study registration. Among those age ≥65 and ≥70, 0.8 and 1.0% developed AML/MDS (vs. 0.4% for age <65), respectively. In adjusted analyses, older age and anthracycline receipt were significantly associated with AML/MDS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for age ≥65 [vs. <65] = 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-8.33; HR for anthracycline receipt [vs. no anthracycline] = 5.16, 95% CI 1.47-18.19). There was no interaction between age and anthracycline use. Deaths occurred in 70% of those developing AML/MDS. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increased risk for AML/MDS for older patients and those receiving anthracyclines, though these events were rare. Our results help inform discussions surrounding anticipated toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients.
Freedman, RA; Seisler, DK; Foster, JC; Sloan, JA; Lafky, JM; Kimmick, GG; Hurria, A; Cohen, HJ; Winer, EP; Hudis, CA; Partridge, AH; Carey, LA; Jatoi, A; Klepin, HD; Citron, M; Berry, DA; Shulman, LN; Buzdar, AU; Suman, VJ; Muss, HB
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