Intravenous Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: Safety and Efficacy Results of a Phase II-A Randomized Trial.
RATIONALE: Potential benefits of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in heart failure may be related to paracrine properties and systemic effects, including anti-inflammatory activities. If this hypothesis is valid, intravenous administration of MSCs should improve outcomes in heart failure, an entity in which excessive chronic inflammation may play a pivotal role. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of intravenously administered ischemia-tolerant MSCs (itMSCs) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, randomized phase II-a trial of nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and absent hyperenhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were randomized to intravenously administered itMSCs (1.5×106 cells/kg) or placebo; at 90 days, each group received the alternative treatment. Overall, 22 patients were randomized to itMSC (n=10) and placebo (n=12) at baseline. After crossover, data were available for 22 itMSC patients. No major differences in death, hospitalization, or serious adverse events were noted between the 2 treatments. Change from baseline in left ventricular ejection fraction and ventricular volumes was not significantly different between therapies. Compared with placebo, itMSC therapy increased 6-minute walk distance (+36.47 m, 95% confidence interval 5.98-66.97; P=0.02) and improved Kansas City Cardiomyopathy clinical summary (+5.22, 95% confidence interval 0.70-9.74; P=0.02) and functional status scores (+5.65, 95% confidence interval -0.11 to 11.41; P=0.06). The data demonstrated MSC-induced immunomodulatory effects, the magnitude of which correlated with improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, itMSC therapy was safe, caused immunomodulatory effects, and was associated with improvements in health status and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02467387.
Butler, J; Epstein, SE; Greene, SJ; Quyyumi, AA; Sikora, S; Kim, RJ; Anderson, AS; Wilcox, JE; Tankovich, NI; Lipinski, MJ; Ko, Y-A; Margulies, KB; Cole, RT; Skopicki, HA; Gheorghiade, M
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