Decreased Uptake and Enhanced Mitochondrial Protection Underlie Reduced Toxicity of Nanoceria in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.
Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), currently used as catalysts including additives to diesel fuel, also present potential as a novel therapeutic agent for disorders involving oxidative stress. However, little is known about the effects of nanoceria on primary human cells involved in the innate immune response. Here, we evaluate nanoceria effects on monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy human subjects. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy human volunteers. MDMs were obtained by maturing monocytes over a five-day period. MDMs were exposed to well-characterized nanoceria suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20 µg/mL) for 24 or 48 hours. We evaluated particle uptake, ultrastructural changes, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial damage in MDMs through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal imaging, flow cytometry, spectrometry, western blots, and immunofluorescence techniques. The role that intracellular concentration of nanoceria plays in the toxicity of MDMs was evaluated by 3D image analysis and compared to monocytes as a nanoceria sensitive cell model. Nanoceria failed to induce cytotoxicity in MDMs at the tested doses. Nanoceria-exposed MDMs showed no mitochondrial damage and displayed significant accumulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) during the maturation process. TEM and confocal analyses revealed efficient uptake of nanoceria by MDMs, however 3D image analyses revealed lower nanoceria accumulation per unit cell volume in MDMs compared to monocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that mitochondrial protection and reduced volume-corrected intracellular nanoparticle concentration account for the lower sensitivity of human MDMs to nanoceria.
Hussain, S; Kodavanti, PP; Marshburn, JD; Janoshazi, A; Marinakos, SM; George, M; Rice, A; Wiesner, MR; Garantziotis, S
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