Correlates of serum lutein + zeaxanthin: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The determinants of blood levels of carotenoids were previously investigated in small or select samples. The relations of serum lutein + zeaxanthin to possible diet, lifestyle, and physiological determinants in 7059 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), > or = 40 y old, were examined. In a fully adjusted, multiple linear regression model, lower serum lutein + zeaxanthin was significantly associated with smoking, heavy drinking, being white, female, or not being physically active, having lower dietary lutein + zeaxanthin, higher fat-free mass, a higher percentage of fat mass, a higher waist-hip ratio, lower serum cholesterol, a higher white blood cell count, and high levels of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). The model explained 24% of the variation present in serum lutein + zeaxanthin for the current sample. The correlation between dietary and serum lutein + zeaxanthin was 0.17 and increased to 0.18 after adjusting for the effects of given covariates. Each 10% increase in dietary lutein + zeaxanthin was associated with a 1% increase in serum conditional on other terms in the model. Many factors that influence the level of serum lutein + zeaxanthin remain unknown.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gruber, M; Chappell, R; Millen, A; LaRowe, T; Moeller, SM; Iannaccone, A; Kritchevsky, SB; Mares, J

Published Date

  • September 2004

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 134 / 9

Start / End Page

  • 2387 - 2394

PubMed ID

  • 15333733

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-3166

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/jn/134.9.2387


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States