Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Insecticides are by design toxic. They must be toxic to effectively kill target species of insects. Unfortunately, they also have off-target toxic effects that can harm other species, including humans. Developmental neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent off-target toxic risks of insecticides. Over the past seven decades several classes of insecticides have been developed, each with their own mechanisms of effect and toxic side effects. This review covers the developmental neurotoxicity of the succeeding generations of insecticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids. The goal of new insecticide development is to more effectively kill target species with fewer toxic side effects on non-target species. From the experience with the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the generations of insecticides developed in the past advice is offered how to proceed with future insecticide development to decrease neurotoxic risk.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Abreu-Villaça, Y; Levin, ED

Published Date

  • February 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 99 /

Start / End Page

  • 55 - 77

PubMed ID

  • 27908457

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC5285268

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-6750

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.019


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Netherlands