Continuous Social Defeat Induces Depression-Like Symptoms Including Anhedonia and Slowed Time Perception that are Rapidly Reversed by Ketamine
© 2016 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to social defeat and subordination by aggressive male Long-Evans rats. The social defeat procedure involved the continuous exposure to an aggressive resident for 10 days, while living in a protective cage within the resident's home cage with daily brief confrontations. These stress experiences resulted in 1) reduced body weight; 2) decreased social interaction; 3) increased ultrasonic vocalizations; 4) reduced sucrose preference (anhedonia); and 5) decreased clock speed while timing 15-s and 45-s target durations in a bi-peak procedure. Treatment with ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a rapid reversal of anhedonia and overproduction of duration. Taken together, these data provide the first evaluation of the effects of continuous social defeat and its associated depression-like symptoms on timing and time perception using a 'state change' design.
Yin, B; Thönes, S; Cheng, RK; Wang, N; Covington, HE; Meck, WH
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