Increased Costs Associated with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Are Due Primarily to Patients with Hospital-Acquired Infections.
The clinical and economic impacts of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are incompletely understood. From 2009 to 2015, all adult inpatients with Gram-negative BSI at our institution were prospectively enrolled. MDR status was defined as resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Clinical outcomes and inpatient costs associated with the MDR phenotype were identified. Among 891 unique patients with Gram-negative BSI, 292 (33%) were infected with MDR bacteria. In an adjusted analysis, only history of Gram-negative infection was associated with MDR BSI versus non-MDR BSI (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 2.16; P = 0.002). Patients with MDR BSI had increased BSI recurrence (1.7% [5/292] versus 0.2% [1/599]; P = 0.02) and longer hospital stay (median, 10.0 versus 8.0 days; P = 0.0005). Unadjusted rates of in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between MDR (26.4% [77/292]) and non-MDR (21.7% [130/599]) groups (P = 0.12). Unadjusted mean costs were 1.62 times higher in MDR than in non-MDR BSI ($59,266 versus $36,452; P = 0.003). This finding persisted after adjustment for patient factors and appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy (means ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.36; P = 0.01). Adjusted analysis of patient subpopulations revealed that the increased cost of MDR BSI occurred primarily among patients with hospital-acquired infections (MDR means ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.82; P = 0.008). MDR Gram-negative BSI are associated with recurrent BSI, longer hospital stays, and increased mean inpatient costs. MDR BSI in patients with hospital-acquired infections primarily account for the increased cost.
Thaden, JT; Li, Y; Ruffin, F; Maskarinec, SA; Hill-Rorie, JM; Wanda, LC; Reed, SD; Fowler, VG
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