Development of procedures for identifying pesticide toxicity in ambient waters: Carbofuran, diazinon, chlorpyrifos
The responses of carbofuran, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos to standard acute toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures were characterized. The test species was Ceriodaphnia dubia. The TIE procedures included solid-phase extraction, recovery in methanol eluates, hydrolysis under acid and base conditions, and retention in specific methanol/water fractions. In addition, the effect of the metabolic inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide, on the toxicity of each of the pesticides was determined. Diazinon degraded quickly under acid conditions, whereas carbofuran degraded under base conditions. In both cases, concentrations were reduced to nontoxic levels within 6 h. Conversely, acidic or basic conditions were not effective in reducing the concentration of chlorpyrifos over the same time period. Solid- phase extraction removed at least 95% of diazinon and carbofuran from solution, but was less effective with chlorpyrifos. All three pesticides eluted separately in characteristic methanol/water fractions. Piperonyl butoxide ameliorated the toxicity of diazinon and chlorpyrifos, but not carbofuran. Up to 1.5% methanol did not interfere with the protective action of piperonyl butoxide. Case studies in which these techniques were applied to ambient water samples are also described.
Bailey, HC; DiGiorgio, C; Kroll, K; Miller, JL; Hinton, DE; Starrett, G
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)