Mammographic density: intersection of science, the law, and clinical practice.
High mammographic density is associated with a two- to sixfold increased risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density can be altered by endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors and generally declines with age. Mammographic density is affected by confounding factors such as age, parity, menopausal status, and body mass index (BMI), thus making interpretation of mammographic density challenging. None of the established means of measuring mammographic density are entirely satisfactory because they are time consuming and/or subjective. Although mammographic density has been shown to predict breast cancer risk, the role of mammographic density in precisely assessing a woman's breast cancer risk over her lifetime and evaluating response to risk-reduction strategies cannot be fully realized until we have a better understanding of the biology that links mammographic density to breast cancer risk.
Hollenbeck, S; Keely, P; Seewaldt, V
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