A global meta-analysis of soil phosphorus dynamics after afforestation.
Afforestation significantly affects soil chemistry and biota, but its effects on the potentially growth-limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) had not to our knowledge been analyzed globally. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 220 independent sampling sites from 108 articles to evaluate global patterns and controls of soil P change following afforestation. Overall, total P concentration decreased by 11% and total P stock by 12% in the top 20 cm of mineral soil following afforestation, with no change in available P. Time since afforestation had no consistent effect on total P, while available P tended to increase with time. Prior land cover was the most influential factor for soil P change after afforestation, with available P increasing on native vegetation but decreasing on cropland. Afforestation increased available P by 22% without decreasing total P on formerly 'degraded' land, but depleted total P by 15% at nondegraded sites. Climate also influenced soil P response to afforestation, with larger P loss in the tropics. Afforestation did not appear to directly induce P limitation, as available P only decreased on cropland. However, substantial declines in total P may drive tropical plantations toward greater P limitation as the capacity to replenish available P decreases.
Deng, Q; McMahon, DE; Xiang, Y; Yu, C-L; Jackson, RB; Hui, D
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