Association of Injury History and Incident Injury in Cadet Basic Military Training.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the association between injury history at enrollment and incident lower extremity (LE) injury during cadet basic training among first-year military cadets. METHODS: Medically treated LE injuries during cadet basic training documented in the Defense Medical Surveillance System were ascertained in a prospective cohort study of three large US military academies from 2005 to 2008. Both acute injuries (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, codes in the 800-900s, including fracture, dislocations, and sprains/strains) and injury-related musculoskeletal injuries (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, codes in the 700s, including inflammation and pain, joint derangement, stress fracture, sprain/strain/rupture, and dislocation) were included. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed using multivariate log-binomial models stratified by gender. RESULTS: During basic training, there were 1438 medically treated acute and 1719 musculoskeletal-related LE injuries in the 9811 cadets. The most frequent LE injuries were sprains/strains (73.6% of acute injuries) and inflammation and pain (89.6% of musculoskeletal-related injuries). The overall risk of incident LE injury was 23.2% (95% CI = 22.3%-24.0%). Cadets with a history of LE injury were at increased risk for incident LE injury. This association was identical in males (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.55-1.94) and females (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.52-1.99). In site-specific analyses, strong associations between injury history and incident injury were observed for hip, knee ligament, stress fracture, and ankle sprain. Injury risk was greater (P < 0.01) for females (39.1%) compared with males (18.0%). The elevated injury risk in females (RR = 2.19, 95% CI = 2.04-2.36) was independent of injury history (adjusted RR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.95-2.24). CONCLUSION: Injury history upon entry to the military is associated with the incidence of LE injuries sustained during cadet basic training. Prevention programs targeted at modifiable factors in cadets with a history of LE injury should be considered.
Kucera, KL; Marshall, SW; Wolf, SH; Padua, DA; Cameron, KL; Beutler, AI
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