Percutaneous fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 and Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal can be divided into three general patterns: avulsion of the tuberosity (type 1), Jones fractures (type 2), and diaphyseal stress fractures (type 3) . Tuberosity fractures can be extra-articular or may involve the metatarsocuboid joint (Fig. 1). Jones fractures involve the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction and extend transversely and medially into the four to five intermetatarsal joint (Figs. 1 and 2). Unlike tuberosity fractures, which reliably heal, Jones fractures have a nonunion rate between 7 % and 28 % [2, 3]. In addition, one third of Jones fractures treated conservatively may go on to closed refracture . Diaphyseal stress fractures occur distal to the four to five intermetatarsal joint (Fig. 1) and are usually associated with prodromal symptoms. Torg  divides diaphyseal stress fractures into three types: acute fractures with sharp margins, delayed unions with a widened fracture line and intramedullary sclerosis, and established nonunions with complete obliteration of the canal.
Saluta, JR; Nunley, JA; Scott, A
- Minimally Invasive Surgery in Orthopedics
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International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
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