Randomised clinical trial: a phase 1, dose-ranging study of the anti-matrix metalloproteinase-9 monoclonal antibody GS-5745 versus placebo for ulcerative colitis.
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a proteolytic enzyme whose expression is increased in ulcerative colitis. AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of GS-5745, a fully humanised anti-matrix metalloproteinase-9 monoclonal antibody, in moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We randomised 74 patients with ulcerative colitis to treatment with single or multiple ascending intravenous or subcutaneous doses of GS-5745 or placebo. Multiple-dose cohorts received either IV infusions (0.3, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg GS-5745 or placebo) every 2 weeks (three total IV infusions) or five weekly SC injections (150 mg GS-5745 or placebo). The primary outcomes were the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of escalating single and multiple doses of GS-5745. Exploratory analyses in the multiple-dose cohorts included clinical response (≥3 points or 30% decrease from baseline in Mayo Clinic score and ≥1 point decrease in the rectal bleeding subscore or a rectal bleeding subscore ≤1) and clinical remission (a complete Mayo Clinic score ≤2 with no subscore >1) at Day 36. Biological effects associated with a clinical response to GS-5745 were explored using histological and molecular approaches. RESULTS: Twenty-three of the 42 patients (55%) receiving multiple doses of GS-5745 had adverse events, compared with 5/8 patients (63%) receiving placebo. GS-5745 showed target-mediated drug disposition, approximately dose-proportional increases in maximum plasma concentration and more than dose-proportional increases in the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve. Clinical response occurred in 18/42 patients (43%) receiving GS-5745 compared with 1/8 patients (13%) receiving placebo. Clinical remission occurred in 6/42 patients (14%) receiving GS-5745 and 0/8 (0%) receiving placebo. Patients with a clinical response to GS-5745 had reductions in matrix metalloproteinase-9 tissue levels (mean 48.9% decrease from baseline compared with a mean 18.5% increase in nonresponders, P = 0.008) significant improvements in histopathology scores (confirmed with three separate histological disease activity indices), as well as changes in colonic gene expression that were consistent with reduced inflammation. CONCLUSION: This phase 1 trial provides preliminary evidence for the safety and therapeutic potential of GS-5745 in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
Sandborn, WJ; Bhandari, BR; Fogel, R; Onken, J; Yen, E; Zhao, X; Jiang, Z; Ge, D; Xin, Y; Ye, Z; French, D; Silverman, JA; Kanwar, B; Subramanian, GM; McHutchison, JG; Lee, SD; Shackelton, LM; Pai, RK; Levesque, BG; Feagan, BG
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