Progressive glomerular toxicity of ifosfamide in children
Glomerular toxicity following ifosfamide (IFO) is not as well recognized as renal tubular damage. Following a case of ifosfamide-induced renal failure with histological evidence of glomerular changes, we undertook a retrospective study of all IFO-treated children to assess the extent and severity of its glomerular toxicity and to identify possible predisposing factors. Thirty seven children with a follow-up of 6 months or more from the end of chemotherapy were studied. They were a median of 10.8 years old (range 3.25-18.5), had received a median of 54 g/m2 (range 9-135) of IFO, and had a median follow-up of 29 months (range 6-68). The criteria to identify glomerular dysfunction were raised plasma creatinine (P(cr)) values on two occasions or a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by Tc-99-DTPA clearance. Detailed assessment was carried out to identify other nephrotoxic influences in these children. Subjects in whom glomerular dysfunction could be causally linked to IFO were compared with the rest of the group for a variety of predisposing factors. Of eight children with glomerular dysfunction, two had other nephrotoxic influences and were excluded from further analysis. In six(17.1%) children, glomerular dysfunction appeared to be causally linked to IFO. Their median GFR was 61.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 3385) and P(cr) was 123 μmol/l (range 85-216). Five of the six had normal glomerular function at the end of therapy and the raised P(cr) values were first noted 19, 21, 26, 29, and 36 months later. Children with glomerular toxicity had a significantly longer median follow-up (41.5 vs. 19 months; P=0.04) than the rest of the group, suggesting late onset of this problem. They were older at the time of the study and had received nearly twice the dose of IFO, though the differences in age and dose did not reach statistical significance. The earliest signs of renal toxicity were seen in the index case, who had prior nephrectomy. All affected children had coexistent and preceding tubular toxicity. The inadequacies of tests commonly used to assess glomerular function and the possibility of underestimation of dysfunction are discussed. Glomerular dysfunction following IFO is poorly recognized and evidence from this study of its later onset and progressive nature is a cause for concern. The index case is described with histological findings.
Prasad, VK; Lewis, IJ; Aparicio, SR; Heney, D; Hale, JP; Bailey, CC; Kinsey, SE
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