Pulsing of dendritic cells with cell lysates from either B16 melanoma or MCA-106 fibrosarcoma yields equally effective vaccines against B16 tumors in mice.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dendritic cells (DC) pulsed in vitro with a variety of antigens have proved effective in producing specific antitumor effects in vivo. Experimental evidence from other laboratories has confirmed that shared antigens can be encountered in histologically distinct tumors. In our experiments, we set out to evaluate the immunotherapeutic potential of vaccines consisting of DC pulsed with MCA-106 fibrosarcoma or B16 melanoma cell lysates and to determine whether a cross-reactivity exists between the two tumors. METHODS: DC were prepared from the bone marrow of C57BL/6 (B6) mice by culturing progenitor cells in murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). They were separated into three equal groups and were either pulsed with B16 melanoma cell lysates (BDC), pulsed with tumor extract from the syngeneic fibrosarcoma MCA-106 (MDC), or left unpulsed (UDC). DC were then used to immunize three groups of mice, with all mice receiving two weekly intravenous (IV) doses of 1 x 10(6) DC from their respective preparations on days -14 and -7. A fourth group of control mice were left untreated. On day 0, all mice were challenged with subcutaneous injections of 1 x 10(5) B16 and 1 x 10(5) MCA tumor cells, administered in the left and right thighs, respectively. After the inoculations, the mice were monitored closely with respect to tumor growth and survival. RESULTS: The MDC mice developed specific cellular immunity directed against not only MCA-106 tumor cells, but also against B16 melanoma, as measured through chromium-release assays of splenocyte preparations, while remaining ineffective at killing both L929 fibroblasts and CT26 tumor cells. By day 30 after tumor inoculations, control mice manifested the largest B16 tumor volumes at a mean of 2185 mm3, followed by the UDC, MDC, and BDC groups at 92 mm3 (P=0.00008), 3 mm3 (P=0.000002), and 2 mm3 (P=0.00004), respectively. The survival data mirrored this pattern, with control animals displaying the shortest mean survival time (37.1+/-4.0 days), followed by UDC (44.8+/-6.6), MDC (56.2 +/-14.7), and BDC (56.4+/-18.3) animals. No significant differences were noted between MCA-106 and B16 cell lysate-pulsed DC vaccines with respect to their abilities to inhibit B16 tumor growth and to prolong survival. These findings were confirmed using a B16 pulmonary metastasis model. Likewise, vaccination with interferon-gamma gene-modified MCA-106 tumor cells was shown to be effective at protecting against a subsequent subcutaneous B16 tumor challenge in 3 of 4 mice observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that immunization with antigen-pulsed DC confers cellular immunity, retards tumor growth, and prolongs the survival of tumor-challenged mice. The ability of MCA-106 cell lysate-pulsed DC vaccines to inhibit the growth of subcutaneous B16 tumors also suggests the presence of shared tumor-associated antigens between these two histologically distinct tumors.
DeMatos, P; Abdel-Wahab, Z; Vervaert, C; Hester, D; Seigler, H
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