Predicting In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.
BACKGROUND: As a foundation for quality improvement, assessing clinical outcomes across hospitals requires appropriate risk adjustment to account for differences in patient case mix, including presentation after cardiac arrest. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a parsimonious patient-level clinical risk model of in-hospital mortality for contemporary patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Patient characteristics at the time of presentation in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-GWTG (Get With the Guidelines) database from January 2012 through December 2013 were used to develop a multivariate hierarchical logistic regression model predicting in-hospital mortality. The population (243,440 patients from 655 hospitals) was divided into a 60% sample for model derivation, with the remaining 40% used for model validation. A simplified risk score was created to enable prospective risk stratification in clinical care. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.6%. Age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, presentation after cardiac arrest, presentation in cardiogenic shock, presentation in heart failure, presentation with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, creatinine clearance, and troponin ratio were all independently associated with in-hospital mortality. The C statistic was 0.88, with good calibration. The model performed well in subgroups based on age; sex; race; transfer status; and the presence of diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Observed mortality rates varied substantially across risk groups, ranging from 0.4% in the lowest risk group (score <30) to 49.5% in the highest risk group (score >59). CONCLUSIONS: This parsimonious risk model for in-hospital mortality is a valid instrument for risk adjustment and risk stratification in contemporary patients with acute myocardial infarction.
McNamara, RL; Kennedy, KF; Cohen, DJ; Diercks, DB; Moscucci, M; Ramee, S; Wang, TY; Connolly, T; Spertus, JA
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