Uniquely human self-control begins at school age.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to resist an impulse for immediate gratification, repeat a previously successful action, attend to a distracting noise, and quit in the face of repeated failure. Six-year-old children were more skillful than either 3-year-olds or chimpanzees at controlling their impulses. These results suggest that humans' most fundamental skills of self-control - as part of the overall decision-making process - are a part of their general great ape heritage, and that their species-unique skills of self-control begin at around the age at which many children begin formal schooling.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Herrmann, E; Misch, A; Hernandez-Lloreda, V; Tomasello, M

Published Date

  • November 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 18 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 979 - 993

PubMed ID

  • 25529764

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1467-7687

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1363-755X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/desc.12272


  • eng