SU-F-I-10: Spatially Local Statistics for Adaptive Image Filtering.
PURPOSE: To facilitate adaptive image filtering operations, addressing spatial variations in both noise and signal. Such issues are prevalent in cone-beam projections, where physical effects such as X-ray scattering result in spatially variant noise, violating common assumptions of homogeneous noise and challenging conventional filtering approaches to signal extraction and noise suppression. METHODS: We present a computational mechanism for probing into and quantifying the spatial variance of noise throughout an image. The mechanism builds a pyramid of local statistics at multiple spatial scales; local statistical information at each scale includes (weighted) mean, median, standard deviation, median absolute deviation, as well as histogram or dynamic range after local mean/median shifting. Based on inter-scale differences of local statistics, the spatial scope of distinguishable noise variation is detected in a semi- or un-supervised manner. Additionally, we propose and demonstrate the incorporation of such information in globally parametrized (i.e., non-adaptive) filters, effectively transforming the latter into spatially adaptive filters. The multi-scale mechanism is materialized by efficient algorithms and implemented in parallel CPU/GPU architectures. RESULTS: We demonstrate the impact of local statistics for adaptive image processing and analysis using cone-beam projections of a Catphan phantom, fitted within an annulus to increase X-ray scattering. The effective spatial scope of local statistics calculations is shown to vary throughout the image domain, necessitating multi-scale noise and signal structure analysis. Filtering results with and without spatial filter adaptation are compared visually, illustrating improvements in imaging signal extraction and noise suppression, and in preserving information in low-contrast regions. CONCLUSION: Local image statistics can be incorporated in filtering operations to equip them with spatial adaptivity to spatial signal/noise variations. An efficient multi-scale computational mechanism is developed to curtail processing latency. Spatially adaptive filtering may impact subsequent processing tasks such as reconstruction and numerical gradient computations for deformable registration. NIH Grant No. R01-184173.
Iliopoulos, AS; Floros, D; Zhang, Y; Pitsianis, N; Sun, X; Yin, FF; Ren, L
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