Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy.
BACKGROUND: Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. PURPOSE: To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0-peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). RESULTS: Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at postrehabilitation, the peak knee flexion angle was positively associated with peak torque and RTD0-200ms, and the knee extension moment was positively associated with RTD0-200ms. At 1 year postsurgery, peak knee flexion angle and knee extension moment were both positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and RTD0-peak torque. CONCLUSION: Although the hop symmetry index could be considered satisfactory for returning to sports, asymmetries in landing mechanics still exist in the first year postmeniscectomy. Greater quadriceps strength was associated with greater single-leg hop distance and better landing mechanics at both postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery. Knee activity self-efficacy was the only psychosocial factor associated with single-leg hop performance and isolated to a positive association with single-leg hop distance at postrehabilitation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rate of development is not typically measured in the clinic but can be an additional quadriceps measure to monitor for single-leg hop performance. Quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors appear to have separate influence on single-leg hop performance after meniscectomy, which has implications for developing appropriate interventions for optimal single-leg hop performance.
Hsu, C-J; George, SZ; Chmielewski, TL
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