Smoking-induced affect modulation in nonwithdrawn smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and in those with no psychiatric disorder.
This research sought to determine whether smoking influences affect by means other than withdrawal reduction. Little previous evidence suggests such an effect. We surmised that such an effect would be especially apparent in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), 2 disorders that are frequently comorbid with smoking and that involve dysregulated affect. Participants were U.S. veterans who were regular smokers (N = 159): 52 with PTSD (58% with comorbid MDD), 51 with MDD, and 56 controls with no psychiatric disorder. During 3 positive and 3 negative mood induction trials (scheduled over 2 sessions), nonwithdrawn participants smoked either a nicotine-containing cigarette (NIC+), a nicotine-free cigarette (NIC-), or held a pen. Positive and negative affect were each measured before and after mood induction. Results showed a significant 2-way interaction of Smoking Condition × Time on negative affect during the negative mood induction (F(6, 576) = 2.41, p = .03) in those with PTSD and controls. In these groups, both NIC+ and NIC-, relative to pen, produced lower negative affect ratings after the negative mood induction. There was also a 2-way interaction of Smoking Condition × Time on positive affect response to the positive mood induction among those with PTSD and controls (F(6, 564) = 3.17, p = .005) and among MDD and controls (F(6, 564) = 2.27, p = .036). Among all smokers, NIC+ enhanced the magnitude and duration of positive affect more than did NIC-. Results revealed affect modulation outside the context of withdrawal relief; such effects may motivate smoking among those with psychiatric diagnoses, and among smokers in general. (PsycINFO Database Record
Cook, JW; Baker, TB; Beckham, JC; McFall, M
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