National Sleep Foundation's sleep quality recommendations: first report.
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations and guidance to the public regarding indicators of good sleep quality across the life-span. METHODS: The National Sleep Foundation assembled a panel of experts from the sleep community and representatives appointed by stakeholder organizations (Sleep Quality Consensus Panel). A systematic literature review identified 277 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Abstracts and full-text articles were provided to the panelists for review and discussion. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 3 rounds of voting was used to determine agreement. RESULTS: For most of the sleep continuity variables (sleep latency, number of awakenings >5minutes, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency), the panel members agreed that these measures were appropriate indicators of good sleep quality across the life-span. However, overall, there was less or no consensus regarding sleep architecture or nap-related variables as elements of good sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: There is consensus among experts regarding some indicators of sleep quality among otherwise healthy individuals. Education and public health initiatives regarding good sleep quality will require sustained and collaborative efforts from multiple stakeholders. Future research should explore how sleep architecture and naps relate to sleep quality. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed.
Ohayon, M; Wickwire, EM; Hirshkowitz, M; Albert, SM; Avidan, A; Daly, FJ; Dauvilliers, Y; Ferri, R; Fung, C; Gozal, D; Hazen, N; Krystal, A; Lichstein, K; Mallampalli, M; Plazzi, G; Rawding, R; Scheer, FA; Somers, V; Vitiello, MV
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