Relative Contributions of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Dissolved Copper to Cu Uptake Kinetics of Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis) Embryos.
The toxicity of soluble metal-based nanomaterials may be due to the uptake of metals in both dissolved and nanoparticulate forms, but the relative contributions of these different forms to overall metal uptake rates under environmental conditions are not quantitatively defined. Here, we investigated the linkage between the dissolution rates of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their bioavailability to Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos, with the aim of quantitatively delineating the relative contributions of nanoparticulate and dissolved species for Cu uptake. Gulf killifish embryos were exposed to dissolved Cu and CuO NP mixtures comprising a range of pH values (6.3-7.5) and three types of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates at various concentrations (0.1-10 mg-C L-1), resulting in a wide range of CuO NP dissolution rates that subsequently influenced Cu uptake. First-order dissolution rate constants of CuO NPs increased with increasing NOM concentration and for NOM isolates with higher aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), while Cu uptake rate constants of both dissolved Cu and CuO NP decreased with NOM concentration and aromaticity. As a result, the relative contribution of dissolved Cu and nanoparticulate CuO species for the overall Cu uptake rate was insensitive to NOM type or concentration but largely determined by the percentage of CuO that dissolved. These findings highlight SUVA and aromaticity as key NOM properties affecting the dissolution kinetics and bioavailability of soluble metal-based nanomaterials in organic-rich waters. These properties could be used in the incorporation of dissolution kinetics into predictive models for environmental risks of nanomaterials.
Jiang, C; Castellon, BT; Matson, CW; Aiken, GR; Hsu-Kim, H
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