Pleural dosimetry and pathobiological responses in rats and hamsters exposed subchronically to MMVF 10a fiberglass.
Interspecies differences in pulmonary and pleural responses to the inhalation of natural mineral and synthetic vitreous fibers have been observed in chronic and subchronic studies. However, the reasons for these differences are not clearly understood. There are also fiber-specific differences in the outcome of chronic inhalation exposure to natural mineral and synthetic vitreous fibers. Whether these differences are dependent upon the ability of these fibers to translocate to the pleural space is unknown. The present study was conducted to compare retained fiber burdens and selected pathological responses in the pleural compartments of rats and hamsters following subchronic inhalation of MMVF 10a fiberglass, a fiber negative for tumorigenesis or fibrosis in chronic studies. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed for 4 or 12 weeks by nose-only inhalation at nominal aerosol mass concentrations of 45 mg/m3 (610 WHO fibers/cc). Pulmonary fiber burdens and pulmonary inflammatory responses were greater in rats than in hamsters. The total number of fibers in the lung was approximately three orders of magnitude greater than in the pleural compartment. Pleural burdens in the hamster (160 fibers/cm2 surface area) were significantly greater than burdens in similarly exposed rats (60 fibers/cm2 surface area) following 12 weeks of exposure. With time postexposure, pleural burdens decreased in hamsters but were essentially unchanged in rats. Pleural inflammatory responses in both species were minimal. In rats, pleural inflammation was characterized by increased numbers of macrophages and increases in mesothelial cell replication during the period of fiber exposure. In contrast, hamsters had increased numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and mesothelial-cell replication indices were elevated on the parietal pleura of the costal wall and diaphragm, with some of these responses persisting through 12 weeks of postexposure recovery. Taken together, the results suggest that differences among rodent species in pleural responses to inhaled fibers are due to a delivered dose of fibers and to the biological responses to the presence of the fibers.
Bermudez, E; Mangum, JB; Moss, OR; Wong, BA; Everitt, JI
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