Antibody-dependent cytolysis (ADCC) of tumor cells by activated murine macrophages is a two-step process: quantification of target binding and subsequent target lysis.
To analyze the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reaction between tumor cells and activated murine macrophages in detail, it must be first determined if physical binding occurred between the two cell types. Over 15-20 min in vitro, antibody-coated HSB neoplastic targets became so firmly attached to the activated macrophages that they resisted removal with 4 vigorous washes. When a quantitative assay of binding was employed, attachment of tumor cells to activated macrophages was found to depend on the concentration of antibody and on the density of the macrophages. These two variables also determined the subsequent extent of cytolysis. Binding of antibody-coated targets by macrophages elicited with thioglycollate broth or activated by bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was comparable. Lysis by the activated macrophages, however, was far greater. Binding occurred at 4, 22, or 37 degrees C, while the subsequent lytic reaction occurred only at 37 degrees C. Thioglycollate broth effectively inhibited lysis but had no effect on binding. A porous filter placed between activated macrophages and targets resulted in abrogation of binding and lysis, even when antibody-coated targets were placed beneath the filters. When labeled, uncoated targets were added to cultures of macrophages in the presence of unlabeled antibody-coated targets, no lysis of the bystander (i.e., uncoated) targets was seen. The data suggest that ADCC is a multistep reaction, that vigorous physical binding of antibody-coated targets by activated macrophages is an initial and necessary step in ADCC, that such binding is not sufficient for ADCC, that such binding controls the selectivity of lysis in ADCC, and that the second step in ADCC results in target lysis.
Johnson, WJ; Bolognesi, DP; Adams, DO
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