A study of haematological and bone marrow changes in symptomatic patients with human immune deficiency virus infection with special mention of functional iron deficiency, anaemia of critically ill and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Haematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. These involve all lineages of blood cells. Bone marrow studies form integral part of complete workup of the HIV positive patients specially when they present as case of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), refractory anaemia and pancytopenia.


55 HIV infected symptomatic patient requiring bone marrow examination were included in the study. Relevant clinical history, baseline haematological investigations including full blood count, CD4 cell counts using flow cytometry were recorded.


Median ANC values in males were found to be significantly lower than females (p = 0.046). CD4 cell count statistically significantly correlated with age, TLC, ANC & platelet count. Anaemia was present in 45 patients and out of which 66.66% patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia was present in (37.77%) patients and anaemia of chronic disease in (62.22%) patients. 2 patients had anaemia of the critically ill. Two patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and showed lymphoma deposit in the bone marrow. Gelatinous degeneration was seen in 3 patients. Ill formed epithelioid cell granulomas were seen in 7 cases, and 2 cases were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Haemophagocytosis was seen in 8 cases; two cases later diagnosed as a case of infection induced HLH. Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies seen in 2 cases.


Bone marrow study is an important investigation in HIV infected symptomatic patients with peripheral haematological abnormalities.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kotwal, J; Singh, V; Kotwal, A; Dutta, V; Nair, V

Published Date

  • October 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 69 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 319 - 325

PubMed ID

  • 24600136

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3862888

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2213-4743

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0377-1237

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.mjafi.2012.11.002


  • eng