Barriers to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Singapore: a Mixed Methods Analysis.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


In order to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore, women's perceived barriers to screening need to be identified and overcome. Using data from both focus groups and surveys, we aimed to assess perceived barriers and motivations for breast and cervical cancer screening.

Materials and methods

We conducted 8 focus groups with 64 women, using thematic analysis to identify overarching themes related to women's attitudes towards screening. Based on recurring themes from focus groups, several hypotheses regarding potential barriers and motivations to screen were generated and tested through a national survey of 801 women aged 25-64.


Focus group participants had misconceptions related to screening, believing that the procedures were painful. Cost was an issue, as well as efficacy and fatalism.


By identifying barriers to and motivators for screening through a mixed-method design that has both nuance and external validity, this study offers valuable suggestions to policymakers to improve breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore.

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Malhotra, C; Bilger, M; Liu, J; Finkelstein, E

Published Date

  • January 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 17 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 3887 - 3895

PubMed ID

  • 27644635

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2476-762X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1513-7368


  • eng