Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.


Journal Article

Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Im, E-O; Ham, OK; Chee, E; Chee, W

Published Date

  • January 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 55 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 525 - 547

PubMed ID

  • 25826460

Pubmed Central ID

  • 25826460

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1541-0331

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0363-0242

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/03630242.2015.1022813


  • eng