Gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain experience: a multiethnic survey in the United States.
Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management.To determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of four ethnic groups in the United States.A feminist perspective was used as the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health or illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses.The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status.The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic.
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Guevara, E; Liu, Y; Lim, H-J; Tsai, H-M; Clark, M; Bender, M; Suk Kim, K; Hee Kim, Y; Shin, H
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