Effect of N- and T-type calcium channel blocker on proteinuria, blood pressure and kidney function in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis.
The combination of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and a blocker of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. L/N- and L/T-type CCBs might provide an additional effect on lowering proteinuria. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of L/N- and L/T-type CCBs in hypertensive patients with proteinuria. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov for single-arm studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of L/N- and L/T-type CCBs as add-on therapy compared with standard antihypertensive regimen for proteinuria on hemodynamic and kidney-related parameters in hypertensive patients with proteinuria. Random-effect model meta-analyses were used to compute changes in the outcomes of interest. We identified 17 RCTs, representing 1905 patients. By meta-analysis, L/N- and L/T-type CCB add-on therapy did not yield significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with standard treatment, but there was a significant lowering of the pulse rate. However, L/N- and L/T-type CCBs resulted in a significant standardized net decrease in albuminuria and proteinuria (-1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.78 to -0.23; P=0.01), and a standardized net improvement in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine (0.23; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.35, P<0.001; and -0.25; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.03; P=0.02, respectively). Despite no additional lowering effect on blood pressure, L/N- and L/T-type CCBs combined with a blocker of the RAAS provided a decrease in proteinuria and improvement in kidney function. Further studies are required to establish the long-term kidney benefits of this combination therapy.
Thamcharoen, N; Susantitaphong, P; Wongrakpanich, S; Chongsathidkiet, P; Tantrachoti, P; Pitukweerakul, S; Avihingsanon, Y; Praditpornsilpa, K; Jaber, BL; Eiam-Ong, S
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