Comparison of Broad vs Narrow Focal Width Lithotripter Fields.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of lithotripter focal width on stone fragmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A modified reflector was used to reduce -6 dB beam size of the HM3 lithotripter, while increasing concomitantly peak pressure. Fragmentation in vitro was assessed with modified and original reflectors using BegoStone phantoms. A membrane holder was used to mimic lithotripsy in vivo, and a matrix holder was used to assess variations of fragmentation power in the focal plane of the lithotripter field. Stone fragmentation in vivo produced by the two reflectors was further compared in a swine model. RESULTS: Stone fragmentation in vitro after 500 (or 2000) shocks was ∼60% (or ∼82%) vs ∼40% (or ∼75%) with original and modified reflector, respectively (p ≤ 0.0016). Fragmentation power with the modified reflector was the highest on the lithotripter axis, but dropped rapidly in the lateral direction and became insignificant at radial distances >6.0 mm. Stone fragmentation with the original reflector was lower along the lithotripter axis, but fragmentation power decayed slowly in lateral direction, with appreciable fragmentation produced at 6.0 mm. Stone fragmentation efficiency in vivo after 500 (or 2000) shocks was ∼70% (or ∼90%) vs ∼45% (or ∼80%) with original and modified reflector, respectively (p ≤ 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A lithotripter field with broad beam size yields superior stone comminution when compared with narrow beam size under comparable effective acoustic pulse energy both in vivo and in vitro. These findings may facilitate future improvements in lithotripter design to maximize comminution efficiency while minimizing tissue injury.
Xing, Y; Chen, TT; Simmons, WN; Sankin, G; Cocks, FH; Lipkin, ME; Preminger, GM; Zhong, P
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