Experimental Models of Short Courses of Liposomal Amphotericin B for Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis.
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2 weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAMB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAMB in the plasma and brains of mice were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAMB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B. A dose-dependent decline in fungal burden was observed in the brains of mice, with near-maximal efficacy achieved with LAMB at 10 to 20 mg/kg/day. The terminal elimination half-life in the brain was 133 h. The pharmacodynamics of a single dose of 20 mg/kg was the same as that of 20 mg/kg/day administered for 2 weeks. Changes in quantitative counts were reflected by histopathological changes in the brain. Three doses of LAMB at 5 mg/kg/day in rabbits were required to achieve fungicidal activity in cerebrospinal fluid (cumulative area under the concentration-time curve, 2,500 mg · h/liter). Amphotericin B was visible in the intra- and perivascular spaces, the leptomeninges, and the choroid plexus. The prolonged mean residence time of amphotericin B in the brain suggests that abbreviated induction regimens of LAMB are possible for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.
Lestner, J; McEntee, L; Johnson, A; Livermore, J; Whalley, S; Schwartz, J; Perfect, JR; Harrison, T; Hope, W
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