The relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition: racial/ethnic differences.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between psychological and cardiovascular symptoms in a multiethnic group of midlife women while controlling for other influencing factors, and to determine the association of race/ethnicity to the relationships between psychological and cardiovascular symptoms.This was a secondary analysis of the data among 1,054 midlife women from two Internet surveys. The instruments included the questions on background characteristics, health, and menopause status and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. The data were analyzed using correlation analyses, chi-squared tests, analysis of variance, and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses.The total numbers and total severity scores of psychological symptoms were significantly related to those of cardiovascular symptoms as a whole and in each racial/ethnic group (P < 0.01). In total participants, both the total numbers and total severity scores of psychological symptoms were significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular symptoms after adjusting for race/ethnicity (P < 0.01), and there were no interactions between race/ethnicity and psychological symptoms. The existence of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases was significantly associated with the total numbers of and total severity scores of psychological symptoms only in Asian women.Further studies on the mechanisms through which psychological symptoms are related to cardiovascular symptoms are needed while controlling for race/ethnicity.
Im, E-O; Kim, J; Chee, E; Chee, W
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