Coronary Artery Anomalies: When You Need to Worry.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a broad spectrum of coronary artery anomalies that cardiologists may encounter either incidentally or during evaluation for cardiac symptoms. These anomalies include anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS), coronary fistulae, and coronary artery aneurysms. This manuscript outlines the unique features, diagnostic characteristics, and treatment considerations for these lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: Intravenous ultrasound (IVUS), computed tomographic angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are becoming more sophisticated and will be increasingly used to facilitate the optimal treatment approach for coronary anomalies. There are a wide variety of coronary artery anomalies and their clinical ramifications range from benign to potentially fatal. Coronary anomalies often have complex anatomy and require advanced imaging modalities for comprehensive characterization. Due to the heterogeneity in lesion characteristics and outcomes, physicians should consider clinical and imaging features to create individualized management plans, along with referral to adult congenital heart disease centers.
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