Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P < 0.001). Following matching, patients receiving induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.
Anderson, KL; Mulvihill, MS; Yerokun, BA; Speicher, PJ; D'Amico, TA; Tong, BC; Berry, MF; Hartwig, MG
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