ANGPTL3 Deficiency and Protection Against Coronary Artery Disease.
BACKGROUND: Familial combined hypolipidemia, a Mendelian condition characterized by substantial reductions in all 3 major lipid fractions, is caused by mutations that inactivate the gene angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3). Whether ANGPTL3 deficiency reduces risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The study goal was to leverage 3 distinct lines of evidence-a family that included individuals with complete (compound heterozygote) ANGPTL3 deficiency, a population based-study of humans with partial (heterozygote) ANGPTL3 deficiency, and biomarker levels in patients with myocardial infarction (MI)-to test whether ANGPTL3 deficiency is associated with lower risk for CAD. METHODS: We assessed coronary atherosclerotic burden in 3 individuals with complete ANGPTL3 deficiency and 3 wild-type first-degree relatives using computed tomography angiography. In the population, ANGPTL3 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations were ascertained in up to 21,980 people with CAD and 158,200 control subjects. LOF mutations were defined as nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site variants, along with missense variants resulting in <25% of wild-type ANGPTL3 activity in a mouse model. In a biomarker study, circulating ANGPTL3 concentration was measured in 1,493 people who presented with MI and 3,232 control subjects. RESULTS: The 3 individuals with complete ANGPTL3 deficiency showed no evidence of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. ANGPTL3 gene sequencing demonstrated that approximately 1 in 309 people was a heterozygous carrier for an LOF mutation. Compared with those without mutation, heterozygous carriers of ANGPTL3 LOF mutations demonstrated a 17% reduction in circulating triglycerides and a 12% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Carrier status was associated with a 34% reduction in odds of CAD (odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence interval: 0.44 to 0.98; p = 0.04). Individuals in the lowest tertile of circulating ANGPTL3 concentrations, compared with the highest, had reduced odds of MI (adjusted odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.55 to 0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ANGPTL3 deficiency is associated with protection from CAD.
Stitziel, NO; Khera, AV; Wang, X; Bierhals, AJ; Vourakis, AC; Sperry, AE; Natarajan, P; Klarin, D; Emdin, CA; Zekavat, SM; Nomura, A; Erdmann, J; Schunkert, H; Samani, NJ; Kraus, WE; Shah, SH; Yu, B; Boerwinkle, E; Rader, DJ; Gupta, N; Frossard, PM; Rasheed, A; Danesh, J; Lander, ES; Gabriel, S; Saleheen, D; Musunuru, K; Kathiresan, S; PROMIS and Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium Investigators,
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