Association of Helicobacter pylori infection and diet on the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Hawaii.
The risk factors most strongly associated with gastric cancer are the gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. Utilizing data from a case-control study among residents in Hawaii, we examined the association of diet, presence of H. pylori, and non-cardia gastric cancer risk.Serum taken at diagnosis for cases (n = 212) and at interview for controls (n = 336) was assayed for IgG antibodies to H. pylori group antigens and to a recombinant fragment of the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA) protein, and subjects completed food frequency questionnaires. Risk measures were calculated using logistic regression. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess interactions.Inverse associations were found between gastric cancer risk and increasing intake of several micronutrients and vegetables among all individuals. For H. pylori/CagA-positive subjects, significant trends were present for total, green, and yellow vegetables, while a significant trend was present only for yellow vegetables among H. pylori/CagA-negative individuals. For intestinal gastric cancer, there was a suggestion that intake of vegetables, especially cruciferous vegetables, had a stronger protective effect for the H. pylori/CagA-positive group.Diet may play a greater role in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer among individuals with evidence of H. pylori infection than among those without.
Epplein, M; Nomura, AMY; Hankin, JH; Blaser, MJ; Perez-Perez, G; Stemmermann, GN; Wilkens, LR; Kolonel, LN
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