Kidney disease in patients with HIV infection and AIDS.
As patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live longer while receiving antiretroviral therapy, kidney diseases have emerged as significant causes of morbidity and mortality. Black race, older age, hypertension, diabetes, low CD4(+) cell count, and high viral load remain important risk factors for kidney disease in this population. Chronic kidney disease should be diagnosed in its early stages through routine screening and careful attention to changes in glomerular filtration rate or creatinine clearance. Hypertension and diabetes must be aggressively treated. Antiretroviral regimens themselves have been implicated in acute or chronic kidney disease. The risk of kidney disease associated with the widely used agent tenofovir continues to be studied, although its incidence in reported clinical trials and observational studies remains quite low. Future studies about the relationship between black race and kidney disease, as well as strategies for early detection and intervention of kidney disease, hold promise for meaningful reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with kidney disease.
Winston, J; Deray, G; Hawkins, T; Szczech, L; Wyatt, C; Young, B
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