Incidence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease in Asian Malays from the Singapore Malay Eye Study.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of symptomatic dry eye disease (SDED) and associated risk factors in a well-characterized cohort of ethnic Malays in Singapore. METHODS: We included 1682 participants (mean age [SD]: 57 years; 55.4% female) without SDED from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES), a population-based longitudinal study with baseline examination (SiMES-1) conducted between 2004 and 2006, and follow-up examination (SiMES-2) conducted between 2010 and 2013. SDED was considered to be present if a participant answered "often" or "all the time" to any of the six questions from the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study dry eye questionnaire. Age-standardized incidence of SDED was calculated as the crude 6-year cumulative incidence standardized to Singapore's population census. Gender-stratified multivariable log-binomial regression models were utilized to determine the independent risk factors of incident SDED. RESULTS: At the 6-year follow-up, 86 of 1682 participants had developed SDED, which was equivalent to an age-standardized 6-year incidence of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1-6.4%). There were no differences in the incidence of SDED between men and women (P = 0.9). Multivariable models revealed that presence of glaucoma and poorer self-rated health were independently associated with incident SDED in men (P = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively), while contact lens wear (P = 0.002), history of thyroid disease (P = 0.03), and having had cataract surgery (P = 0.02) were predictive of incident SDED in women. CONCLUSION: One in twenty adult Malays developed SDED over a 6-year period. Risk factors for incident SDED were different between men and women. Future studies and public health interventions should consider this gender-specific difference in risk factors.
Man, REK; Veerappan, AR; Tan, S-P; Fenwick, EK; Sabanayagam, C; Chua, J; Leong, Y-Y; Wong, TY; Lamoureux, EL; Cheng, C-Y; Tong, L
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