Th9 lymphocytes: A recent history from IL-9 to its potential role in rheumatic diseases.
Various subtypes of effector T cells have been described up to date, and each one has its specific immunological function and a defined cytokine secretion profile. Th9 lymphocytes, recently described, are characterized by a high IL-9 expression. Their differentiation requires the integration of IL-4 and TGF-β signaling pathways and the coordinated participation of multiple transcription factors. Their role has been mainly found in immunity against parasites and in allergic inflammatory processes. Nevertheless, they have been implicated in processes as autoimmunity, cancer and recently in rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to describe the discovery of this cellular subtype, its differentiation, expression regulation and its potential role in rheumatic diseases.
Rojas-Zuleta, WG; Vásquez, G
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)