GB virus C infection in children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus infection.
BACKGROUND: GB virus C (GBV-C) infection occurs in 20-40% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, and coinfection is associated with improved HIV disease outcome. METHODS: To determine the prevalence of GBV-C infection in children who were perinatally infected with HIV, we conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey in a cohort of perinatally infected HIV-positive children selected from a large, multicenter observational protocol. A blood specimen was obtained and tested for GBV-C viremia with the use of a qualitative GBV-C RNA assay and screened for past GBV-C infection with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies to the GBV-C envelope protein E2 (E2 Ab). RESULTS: The 354 children who participated in the substudy were relatively healthy, with a median CD4 of 784 cells/mm and median HIV-1 viral load of 1055 copies/mL. The prevalence of GBV-C viremia was 20 of 353 or 5.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.5-8.6%), and the prevalence of E2 Ab was 12 of 354 or 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-5.8%). GBV-C viremic patients were older than patients without past GBV-C infection (median age, 12.8 years versus 10.7 years). Median CD4 lymphocyte counts were highest in subjects without GBV-C infection and lowest in those with E2 Ab. CONCLUSIONS: GBV-C prevalence rates are lower in children with perinatal HIV infection than those reported for HIV-infected adults. With the exception of evidence that GBV-C viremic children had lower rates of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV disease category C disease before GBV-C testing, we did not find evidence of improved HIV disease outcome in coinfected patients, but the number of HIV/GBV-C-coinfected children was small.
Schuval, S; Lindsey, JC; Stapleton, JT; Van Dyke, RB; Palumbo, P; Mofenson, LM; Oleske, JM; Cervia, J; Kovacs, A; Dankner, WN; Smith, E; Nowak, B; Ciupak, G; Webb, N; Eagle, M; Smith, D; Hennessey, R; Goodman-Kerkau, M; Klinzman, D; Hess, G; Zdunek, D; Levin, MJ; Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 1028S Team,
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