FtsZ Constriction Force - Curved Protofilaments Bending Membranes.
FtsZ assembles in vitro into protofilaments (pfs) that are one subunit thick and ~50 subunits long. In vivo these pfs assemble further into the Z ring, which, along with accessory division proteins, constricts to divide the cell. We have reconstituted Z rings in liposomes in vitro, using pure FtsZ that was modified with a membrane targeting sequence to directly bind the membrane. This FtsZ-mts assembled Z rings and constricted the liposomes without any accessory proteins. We proposed that the force for constriction was generated by a conformational change from straight to curved pfs. Evidence supporting this mechanism came from switching the membrane tether to the opposite side of the pf. These switched-tether pfs assembled "inside-out" Z rings, and squeezed the liposomes from the outside, as expected for the bending model. We propose three steps for the full process of cytokinesis: (a) pf bending generates a constriction force on the inner membrane, but the rigid peptidoglycan wall initially prevents any invagination; (b) downstream proteins associate to the Z ring and remodel the peptidoglycan, permitting it to follow the constricting FtsZ to a diameter of ~250 nm; the final steps of closure of the septum and membrane fusion are achieved by excess membrane synthesis and membrane fluctuations.
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