Race/Ethnic Differences in Outcomes Among Hospitalized Medicare Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.
OBJECTIVES:This study analyzed HFpEF patient characteristics and clinical outcomes according to race/ethnicity and adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics along with socioeconomic status (SES). BACKGROUND:The proportion of hospitalizations for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has increased over the last decade. Whether the short- and long-term outcomes differ between racial/ethnic groups is not well described. METHODS:The Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry was linked to Medicare administrative data to identify hospitalized patients with HFpEF ≥65 years of age with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% between 2006 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were used to report hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day and 1-year readmission and mortality rates with sequential adjustments for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES. RESULTS:The final cohort included 53,065 patients with HFpEF. Overall 30-day mortality was 5.87%; at 1 year, it was 33.1%. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate was 22.2%, and it was 67.0% at 1 year. After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES, 30-day mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98; p = 0.031) and Hispanic patients (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p = 0.017) compared with white patients. One-year mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.99; p = 0.031), Hispanic patients (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.91; p < 0.001), and Asian patients (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.88; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. Black patients had a higher risk of readmission at 30 days (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.012) and 1 year (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. CONCLUSIONS:Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients had a lower mortality risk after a hospitalization for HFpEF compared with white patients; black patients had higher readmission rates. These differences in mortality and readmission risk according to race/ethnicity persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics, SES, and hospital factors.
Ziaeian, B; Heidenreich, PA; Xu, H; DeVore, AD; Matsouaka, RA; Hernandez, AF; Bhatt, DL; Yancy, CW; Fonarow, GC
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