The Effect of the Superior Cavopulmonary Anastomosis on Ventricular Remodeling in Infants with Single Ventricle.
BACKGROUND: Infants with single ventricular physiology have volume and pressure overload that adversely affect ventricular mechanics. The impact of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (SCPA) on single left ventricles versus single right ventricles is not known. METHODS: As part of the Pediatric Heart Network placebo-controlled trial of enalapril in infants with single ventricular physiology, echocardiograms were obtained before SCPA and at 14 months and analyzed in a core laboratory. Retrospective analysis of the following measurements included single ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), mass, mass-to-volume ratio (mass/volume), and ejection fraction. Qualitative assessment of atrioventricular valve regurgitation and assessment of diastolic function were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 156 participants underwent echocardiography at both time points. Before SCPA, mean ESV and mass Z scores were elevated (3.4 ± 3.7 and 4.2 ± 2.9, respectively) as were mean EDV and mass/volume Z scores (2.1 ± 2.5 and 2.0 ± 2.9, respectively). EDV, ESV, and mass decreased after SCPA, but mass/volume and the degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation did not change. Subjects with morphologic left ventricles demonstrated greater reductions in ventricular volumes and mass than those with right ventricles (mean change in Z score: left ventricular [LV] EDV, -1.9 ± 2.1; right ventricular EDV, -0.7 ± 2.5; LV ESV, -2.3 ± 2.9; right ventricular ESV, -0.9 ± 4.6; LV mass, -2.5 ± 2.8; right ventricular mass, -1.3 ± 2.6; P ≤ .03 for all). Approximately one third of patients whose diastolic function could be assessed had abnormalities at each time point. CONCLUSIONS: Decreases in ventricular size and mass occur in patients with single ventricle after SCPA, and the effect is greater in those with LV morphology. The remodeling process resulted in commensurate changes in ventricular mass and volume such that the mass/volume did not change significantly in response to the volume-unloading surgery.
Margossian, R; Zak, V; Shillingford, AJ; Hlavacek, AM; Cnota, JF; Puchalski, MD; Levine, JC; McCrindle, BW; Cohen, MS; Altmann, K; Barker, PC; Hsu, DT; Colan, SD; Pediatric Heart Network Investigators,
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