ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Hematospermia.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Most men with hematospermia or hemospermia (HS) are young (<40 years of age), presenting with transient or episodic HS without other signs or symptoms of disease. The condition is self-limiting in most cases and idiopathic in nature. When a cause can be identified, infections of the urogenital tract are the most common. Imaging does not play a role in this patient population. In older men (>40 years of age), clinical screening for prostate cancer is advised. Furthermore, when HS is persistent or has symptoms, causes include obstruction or stricture at the level of the verumontanum, calcifications or calculi in the prostate, ejaculatory ducts or seminal vesicles, and cysts arising within these structures. Noninvasive imaging, predominantly transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and MRI, can be used in men of any age with persistent or refractory HS, or other associated symptoms or signs. TRUS is considered as the first-line imaging with MRI used when TRUS is inconclusive or negative. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Expert Panel on Urologic Imaging:, ; Hosseinzadeh, K; Oto, A; Allen, BC; Coakley, FV; Friedman, B; Fulgham, PF; Hartman, MS; Heller, MT; Porter, C; Sahni, VA; Sudakoff, GS; Verma, S; Wang, CL; Yoo, DC; Remer, EM; Eberhardt, SC

Published Date

  • May 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 14 / 5S

Start / End Page

  • S154 - S159

PubMed ID

  • 28473071

Pubmed Central ID

  • 28473071

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1558-349X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jacr.2017.02.023


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States