Survival in Women Versus Men Following Implantation of Pacemakers, Defibrillators, and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices in a Large, Nationwide Cohort.
BACKGROUND: Whether outcomes differ between sexes following treatment with pacemakers (PM), implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive US patients with newly implanted PM, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and CRT devices from a large remote monitoring database between 2008 and 2011 were included in this observational cohort study. Sex-specific all-cause survival postimplant was compared within each device type using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, stratified on age and adjusted for remote monitoring utilization and ZIP-based socioeconomic variables. A total of 269 471 patients were assessed over a median 2.9 [interquartile range, 2.2, 3.6] years. Unadjusted mortality rates (MR; deaths/100 000 patient-years) were similar between women versus men receiving PMs (n=115 076, 55% male; MR 4193 versus MR 4256, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.90; P<0.001) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (n=85 014, 74% male; MR 4417 versus MR 4479, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.02; P=0.244). In contrast, survival was superior in women receiving CRT defibrillators (n=61 475, 72% male; MR 5270 versus male MR 7175; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.70-0.76; P<0.001) and also CRT pacemakers (n=7906, 57% male; MR 5383 versus male MR 7625, adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.78; P<0.001). This relative difference increased with time. These results were unaffected by age or remote monitoring utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Women accounted for less than 30% of high-voltage implants and fewer than half of low-voltage implants in a large, nation-wide cohort. Survival for women and men receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillators and PMs was similar, but dramatically greater for women receiving both defibrillator- and PM-based CRT.
Varma, N; Mittal, S; Prillinger, JB; Snell, J; Dalal, N; Piccini, JP
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