The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) has provided the critical care community with the first pediatric-focused definition for ARDS. The PALICC recommendations provide guidance on conventional ventilator management, gas exchange goals, use of high-frequency ventilation, adjunct management approaches, and the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric ARDS (PARDS). Although outcomes for PARDS have improved over the past decade, mortality and morbidity remain significant. Pediatric-specific criteria may provide the ability to more promptly recognize and diagnose PARDS in clinical practice. Improvements in prognostication and stratification of disease severity may help to guide therapeutic interventions. Improved comparisons between patients and studies may help to promote future clinical investigations. Hopefully, the recommendations provided by PALICC, in terms of defining and managing ARDS, will stimulate additional research to better guide therapy and further improve outcomes for critically ill infants and children with ARDS.
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