Chapter 6 state of the science of pediatric traumatic brain injury: biomarkers and gene association studies.
OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to review the most widely used biomarkers and gene studies reported in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature, to describe their findings, and to discuss the discoveries and gaps that advance the understanding of brain injury and its associated outcomes. Ultimately, we aim to inform the science for future research priorities. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for published English language studies conducted in the last 10 years to identify reviews and completed studies of biomarkers and gene associations in pediatric TBI. Of the 131 biomarker articles, only 16 were specific to pediatric TBI patients, whereas of the gene association studies in children with TBI, only four were included in this review. CONCLUSION: Biomarker and gene attributes are grossly understudied in pediatric TBI in comparison to adults. Although recent advances recognize the importance of biomarkers in the study of brain injury, the limited number of studies and genomic associations in the injured brain has shown the need for common data elements, larger sample sizes, heterogeneity, and common collection methods that allow for greater understanding of the injured pediatric brain. By building on to the consortium of interprofessional scientists, continued research priorities would lead to improved outcome prediction and treatment strategies for children who experience a TBI. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING RESEARCH: Understanding recent advances in biomarker and genomic studies in pediatric TBI is important because these advances may guide future research, collaborations, and interventions. It is also important to ensure that nursing is a part of this evolving science to promote improved outcomes in children with TBIs.
Reuter-Rice, K; Eads, JK; Berndt, SB; Bennett, E
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